KamaGames adds MTT and Split Bet Poker

first_img European social mobile poker operator KamaGames has strengthened its flagship Pokerist title by launching a new game, Split Bet Poker, and adding the popular Multi-Table Tournaments (MTT).MTT’s two-week soft launch period generated a 17% increase in the number of concurrent players online, KamaGames said.MTT, which is particularly suitable for more experienced players, is also likely to be a hit on mobile, with the average number of players reaching 400 with a playing duration of between 20 and 25 minutes per tournament. With MTT, a player can potentially win 20 times their initial buy-in.“Our current game mechanics featured in Boost Poker and our various Party Modes assume that players could take risks and go all-in at the beginning of each round,” a KamaGames spokesperson said.“However, results show that MTT is completely different in nature. Players take their time and choose a more strategic approach to get to the final table and potentially win the tournament. This adds a completely new type of play to our existing portfolio.”Launched recently into the Pokerist app, Split Bet Poker is played with three player cards and two community cards. Each player is able to take back one-third of their bet when they see their cards and then another third when the first of the community cards is shown.Split Bet Poker’s payouts can reach up to 1,000:1, but also offers players the chance to scale back bets.“We have made an ongoing commitment to our players to continue to innovate through a variety of game formats and playing experiences and these two launches are a great example of that,” KamaGames chief executive Andrew Kuznetsov said.“Having more than 530,000 daily active users means there are host of different kinds of players who enjoy our games. This means that as an operator, we need to offer them a wide variety of tournaments, games and different ways to play allowing every player to choose the content that suits them and their playing style.” 15th June 2018 | By contenteditor Casino & games Regions: Europe Topics: Casino & games Marketing & affiliates Social gaming Subscribe to the iGaming newslettercenter_img KamaGames adds MTT and Split Bet Poker AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter European social mobile poker operator KamaGames has strengthened its flagship Pokerist title by launching a new game, Split Bet Poker, and adding the popular Multi-Table Tournaments (MTT). Email Addresslast_img read more

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Promotion and Development Ltd (PAD.mu) HY2016 Interim Report

first_imgPromotion and Development Ltd (PAD.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Investment sector has released it’s 2016 interim results for the half year.For more information about Promotion and Development Ltd (PAD.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Promotion and Development Ltd (PAD.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Promotion and Development Ltd (PAD.mu)  2016 interim results for the half year.Company ProfilePromotion and Development Limited is a company based in Mauritius which deals in the shares investment, property development, and supply and provision of services associated with such activities in Mauritius. The company has property, shares, and security segments that it operates through. Promotion and Development Limited also rents properties and provides security and property protection services, as well as sells equipment. Promotion and Development Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.last_img read more

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What is a Personal Injury Lawyer and Why You Might Need…

first_imgShare on Facebook Tweet on Twitter The Anatomy of Fear LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate By Allen BrownPeople can become injured for a number of reasons. It could be anything from a slip and fall incident to a vehicle collision. Someone may become hurt at work or suffer at the hands of a medical practitioner. People get injured doing sports or come to harm through defective products. Added to that are dog bites and wrongful deaths, to name a few. Sometimes people are responsible for their own injuries. They may have been a drunk driver or refused to wear a safety harness for a risky activity. A person may have continued to use a faulty electrical appliance or a wobbly ladder. In some cases, however, another party may well be at fault. It may be that the other person denies responsibility for their malpractice or negligence. If a request for financial compensation is made, they may challenge the amount requested. It is at times like these that people are advised to employ the services of a personal injury lawyer. Let’s learn a little more about who they are and why a person may need one. Personal Injury LawyersThese professionals are qualified attorneys. They submit legal claims for compensation on behalf of their clients and act as their advocate. According to the lawyers at https://www.hamparyan.com/, such professionals are trained to battle against insurance companies and negligent corporations. Some attorneys receive formal accreditation such as Top Attorneys, Super Lawyers, or BBB Rating A+.They Provide Legal AdviceThis usually begins with a free consultation. If chosen, they will guide their client all the way through the legal process. Cases involving truck accidents can often be more complex than those for cars. Some legislation varies between different U.S. states. Employment law can be complicated when it relates to accidents at work. These are just a few of the areas where professional advice can prove indispensable. They Create Your Case For CompensationAttorneys understand the Statute of Limitations, which provides a time window for injured parties to submit their legal claims. Lawyers collate the medical reports from both doctors and specialists and all the bills for diagnosis and treatment. Lawyers obtain witness statements and formal reports from professionals where necessary. They also request documentation showing the loss of earnings experienced by their client since the injury was sustained. If it was a vehicle incident, Police crash reports may be obtained, and an investigation is made into the existence of any relevant video footage.  Lawyers consider the future when they calculate compensation requests. It may be that the injured person will have an impaired ability to earn money in the future. They may also require medical treatment, prescriptions, or medical equipment for the rest of their lives. If necessary, an attorney will liaise with an actuary to get these calculations.They Deal With The Insurance Companies Insurance companies often make much of their money by minimizing their payouts. As a result, they employ attorneys of their own. On their websites, many personal injury lawyers talk about aggressively making their claims and resisting the tactics of reluctant insurance companies. If a member of the public has no legal representative, they may be vulnerable to losing out on their claim. They Negotiate A Settlement FigureLawyers are more likely to know what is a fair payout. Both the injured person and the third party may be in a hurry to resolve things quickly. If an early settlement is offered, a lawyer will be able to advise their client whether or not the sum is too small to accept. Attorneys also assist their clients in receiving Interim Settlements should the other party accept liability from day one. Part 36 Offers can be a minefield for a layman, and once again, lawyers will be best placed to advise. They Represent You To The EndBy acting on a person’s behalf, a lawyer will protect their client from some of the stress that occurs during the legal process. The accident victim can then focus on their medical recovery or work. Most legal cases of this nature are settled before lawsuits are filed. In some instances, however, civil court proceedings are initiated. It can be comforting to know that if things do end up in court, the attorney will be the person attending. They will speak on their client’s behalf as their legal advocate. As you can see, personal injury lawyers can be a vital link in the chain between being injured and claiming a fair financial payment. They exist to ensure that justice is served, so their client can move on with their life. In that sense, they are truly worth the investment. TAGSAccidentBenefitsCompensationInjuryInsurance CompaniesLawyersRoletips Previous article5 strategies for cultivating hope this yearNext articleTips on Preparing for Your Family’s Future Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Please enter your name here Please enter your comment! You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.last_img read more

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Ireland’s top 15,000 worth $52 billion

first_img  35 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Advertisement About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Ireland’s top 15,000 worth $52 billion AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThiscenter_img Howard Lake | 2 May 2005 | News Tagged with: Ireland Prospect research Research / statistics Ireland’s 15,000 highest net worth individuals are worth around $52 billion according to a survey by Cap Gemini and investment bank Merrill Lynch. This works out at almost $3.5 million each on average.The world’s richest people saw their wealth rise 7.7 per cent to $23.8 trillion in 2003, taking it back to levels before the collapse of the dotcom stock market boom four years ago, the survey found.last_img read more

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Harlequin is highest rated CRM software supplier again

first_img  58 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis1 Harlequin is highest rated CRM software supplier again Harlequin has been rated the top supplier for the fourth year in a row in Fundraising magazine’s Charity CRM Software Survey 2014.The company designs CRM, fundraising and accounting software, and has 200 not-for-profit organisation clients across the UK.Its software was the fourth most commonly cited by charities respondingIt was ranked highest in answer to ‘How do you rate your CRM software supplier?’ and ‘How do you rate your CRM software system?’, with respectively 2.68 and 2.67 out of three. It also scored 100% from mid-sized charities (those with an income from £1m to £10m) when asked whether they would recommend their CRM supplier.The company scored even higher this year compared to 2013 for  ‘Functionality’, ‘Ease of use’, ‘Provision of upgrades’ and ‘Integration with other systems’.The results of the Charity CRM Software Survey are published in the March 2014 issue of Fundraising magazine.Top concerns of readers who responded included software integration, regulatory compliance, the increasing prevalence of smaller suppliers and the ongoing preference of sector specific CRM software. Diane Sim, reporting on the survey findings in Fundraising, noted:“Charities continue to favour specialist CRM software tailored for the not-for-profit community over commercial CRM and generic packages”.Tom Ellis, Managing Director of Harlequin said: Advertisement About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis1 “We are delighted to rank top on both these critical questions in the survey. Last year, our developers were busy enhancing functionality whilst also ensuring the system remains easy to use. Much work was undertaken on template workflows, integration and the release of an upgrade encompassing the new Gift Aid procedures.”In January this year Harlequin was also voted ‘Best Database Supplier’ in the Institute of Fundraising’s Partners in Fundraising Awards 2014. Howard Lake | 13 March 2014 | News  57 total views,  1 views today Tagged with: Technologylast_img read more

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Organize and resist war at home and abroad

first_imgSara Flounders speaking at Chicago Ukraine meeting, April 12. WW photo: Patricia LinarezFollowing are excerpts of remarks by Sara Flounders, co-director of the International Action Center, at the “What Is Driving the ‘New Cold War’” teach-in held at New York City’s Riverside Church on May 10. Go to workers.org to read articles on the teach-in and the May 9-26 anti-war actions.The people of the U.S. can be a mighty force when aroused, mobilized and organized. That is why we are here today with many voices.  We urgently need to begin to mobilize.The very policies of endless wars that the U.S. military imposes around the world are now coming home in austerity, cutbacks and low wages. This changes the material basis of our struggle.People in Ukraine, at the grassroots, gave a monumental surprise to the coup organizers in Kiev. Washington’s plan was to terrorize the population into silence. The role of fascist shock troops was to overturn the elected government and seize the armed power of the state.The fascist forces thought they only needed the backing of U.S. imperialism. They had an immediate invitation to the White House and a few billion dollars promised in International Monetary Fund loans. It was a done deal, facts on the ground. Or so it seemed.U.S. imperialism, in its arrogance, always, always underestimates the ability of people to resist.The workers in Ukraine did something wholly surprising, unexpected. They rose up! They resisted! They are fighting back. They seized government and administrative buildings and established their own security force. Through roadblocks and with literally thousands in the streets, they stopped the military.The Ukrainian military disappeared. They melted away and refused to fight their own brothers and sisters. They abandoned their tanks and took the clips out of their guns. It was a humiliating defeat for the coup organizers.Now imperialism has only the fascists to lean on.First armed uprisingWhat is happening in eastern Ukraine this month is the first armed rebellion of this period, against the banks, the IMF and the whole neoliberal austerity program.It is an armed and organized Occupy-Wall-Street-type movement. Workers all over the world will learn an enormous amount from this heroic effort, however it turns out.This is why Kiev, the capital, is now suddenly flooded with CIA, FBI and Blackwater/Greystone mercenaries. Corporate power in the U.S. is frantic that its plans are going totally awry.The U.S. government is issuing ultimatums right and left. The decibels of war propaganda and demonization have been turned up. It is all media hype about so-called Russian agents, Russian terrorists.The U.S.-engineered, violent, high-risk coup in Ukraine was part of the ruling class’ continuing plan for the dangerous expansion of NATO.The biggest war games and troop maneuvers in NATO’s history are taking place right now and larger ones are scheduled. This is a calculated escalation and deliberate provocation. These war criminals are determined to lure Russia into a trap.Key to NATO’s plans was ousting Russia from its military and naval bases in Crimea, turning them into NATO bases facing Russia. This is crucial to the total conquest and recolonization of Russia.Wall Street is determined that no competing powers arise. For Russia and for China, the plans include military encirclement and political and economic destabilization through sanctions, threats and funding reactionary opposition groups.Wall Street especially wanted to seize control of key industries and factories in Ukraine that export critical engines and parts to Russia. Forty percent of Ukraine’s exports to Russia are armaments and related machinery for heavy industry and for oil and gas development. Of course, the bosses also want control of vital oil and gas lines from Russia to Europe that cross Ukraine.The Wall Street oligarchs had lots of plans. They had plans for the people of Ukraine too,  austerity plans that loot pensions, double the cost of fuel, cut wages and sell off industries. Their first priority is to pay the banks and help make Ukraine safe for McDonald’s.In response the forces in the People’s Republic of Donetsk have raised surprising demands, including returning industries to nationalized ownership, stopping the sale of industries and, most important, a say in economic and political decisions.Their fight is our fight. Isn’t this what we need here? Building solidarity with those fighting fascism in Ukraine raises the struggle here.Democracy for oligarchs Washington and Wall Street always speak in the name of democracy, but they fear democracy everywhere.This is a plutocracy. The richest oligarchs are on Wall Street. Court decisions now place no limit on campaign funding, whether to the Democratic or Republican Party, at the very time that voting rights of Black voters are under unrelenting attack.Washington is more than willing to support and give billions in funding and diplomatic recognition to fascist ultra-right forces who overturned the elected government in Ukraine. Yet the oligarchs oppose a referendum in Crimea that voted overwhelmingly to join Russia, and they are determined to stop a referendum in East Ukraine.This is true around the world. The U.S. gave crucial support to the brutal military coup in Egypt that overturned the first truly democratic election in Egypt’s 5,000 history.In Syria the U.S. government and its secret agencies are arming thousands of mercenaries and the most reactionary jihadists to overturn the government. This mercenary invasion has left one-third of the population dislocated and homeless, but it has not succeeded.Washington is mobilizing the most reactionary and privileged forces in Venezuela and in Ecuador in an effort to destabilize progressive democratic governments there.Throughout Africa, AFRICOM — the U.S.-NATO command in Africa — is now organizing an operation a day to destabilize countries throughout the continent.Sanctions, terror tactics, drone attacks are used against elected governments around the world, while supporting the most reactionary dictatorships and feudal monarchies in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Jordan, Morocco and Colombia.Our role here is to link these struggles, expose the corporate interests and build solidarity with the many forms of peoples’ resistance in this period. We cannot bemoan the small size of the movement now. We have to think what we can do with our resources and how we can mobilize and show resistance.The very policies the U.S. military imposes around the world now come home in austerity, cutbacks and low wages. That changes the material basis of every struggle. This dying, corrupt capitalist system has no solutions except even worse cutbacks and increasing militarism and repression.The overwhelming majority of the U.S. population is against another war. This is confirmed in  poll after poll; whether it’s a Wall Street Journal poll, a USA Today poll or a Pew poll. The numbers run three to one, and up to five to one, against any military action in Ukraine, Russia, Syria or anywhere, for any reason.We know that the overwhelming majority of the population is against the wars. We know conditions here are increasingly desperate. The people united will never be defeated!FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

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Frogs sweep Sooners after double-header

first_imgFacebook TCU suspends study abroad programs through spring 2021 ReddIt What we’re reading: Presidential town halls to air tonight, #MeToo leader speaks on movement’s anniversary Linkedin What we’re reading: Joe Biden has narrow lead in uncalled states, COVID-19 numbers reach a new high TCU places second in the National Student Advertising Competition, the highest in school history Welcome TCU Class of 2025 Derek Lytlehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/derek-lytle/ Junior Sports Broadcast Major / Journalism Minor Derek Lytlehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/derek-lytle/ Derek Lytlehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/derek-lytle/ Twittercenter_img Twitter printThe Horned Frogs took the second game of a doubleheader with the Oklahoma Sooners to complete a three-game home series sweep on Saturday.TCU was led to victory by starter Brian Howard, who gave up just three hits over  seven innings An RBI single and an unearned run on a passed ball allowed the Frogs to take and keep a 2-0 lead, which would be the final score.The Sooners got a decent outing from starter Jake Elliott, who tossed five and a third innings and gave up one earned run on four hits. Offense was a problem for Oklahoma — the Sooners mustered only five hits off of TCU pitching.There wasn’t much offense coming from TCU either, but the Frogs got just enough to win the game.In the fifth inning, TCU got its first run from an RBI-single off the bat of first-baseman Connor Wanhanen.The Frogs would add an insurance run in the bottom of the eighth when Evan Skoug scored on a passed ball.The Sooners got a lead-off double and a walk in the top of the ninth, but the Frogs ended the threat with a double play.TCU improves to 27-8 and are now 9-3 in Big 12 play. Oklahoma falls to 18-18 on the year and are now 4-8 in Big 12 play.The Frogs will take on Abilene Christian University in Abilene on Tuesday. Derek Lytle Facebook Previous articleFrogs’ offensive outburst continues in game 1 of doubleheaderNext articleWeekend Sports Round-up: April 15-17 Derek Lytle RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR TCU: A campus altered by COVID-19 ReddIt Derek Lytlehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/derek-lytle/ World Oceans Day shines spotlight on marine plastic pollution + posts Linkedinlast_img read more

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Iraqi Kurdistan: Wave of arrests of journalists since Covid-19’s arrival

first_img RSF_en Reporters Without Borders (RSF) calls for an end to the wave of arrests and harassment of journalists under way in Iraqi Kurdistan since Covid-19 arrived in the region. At least four journalists have been arrested by the Kurdistan Regional Government’s security forces in the past month. IraqMiddle East – North Africa Condemning abusesProtecting journalists Organisation News April 17, 2020 Iraqi Kurdistan: Wave of arrests of journalists since Covid-19’s arrival News Receive email alerts to go further Follow the news on Iraq “One journalist after another has been arrested since Iraqi Kurdistan was hit by the coronavirus,” said Sabrina Bennoui, the head of RSF’s Middle East desk. “The security forces must stop using this crisis to carry out arrests without charge and without legitimate grounds.” Finally, the Kurdistan government’s health minister has sent a letter to the interior ministry calling for the NRT TV channel to be suspended for allegedly inciting the public not to respect the curfew. No decision has so far been taken in response to the request. Help by sharing this information Reporters have also had problems in the field while trying to cover the measures ordered by the government to combat the pandemic. Freelancer Zryan Mohammad was detained for several hours in Sulaymaniyah on 7 April after filming a large outdoor gathering at which salaries were distributed. The gathering was held despite a curfew. February 15, 2021 Find out more Iraq is ranked 156th out of 180 countries in RSF’s 2019 World Press Freedom Index. December 28, 2020 Find out more News Iraq : Wave of arrests of journalists covering protests in Iraqi Kurdistan Awder Omer, a video-reporter for the Nas Kurd news website, was badly beaten by security forces in Sulaymaniyah on 22 March when he filmed a temporary checkpoint that had been set up to enforce the curfew. His mobile phone and other equipment were seized and the video he had filmed was deleted. IraqMiddle East – North Africa Condemning abusesProtecting journalists Dohuk-based freelancer Dilshad Himo was freed on bail yesterday after being arrested for criticizing a decision to postpone the payment of salaries to civil servants during the crisis. Kurdistan 24 reporter Harem Jaf was briefly detained in Kifri at the end of March for criticizing a raid on the home of a man suspected of being infected with the virus. Three jailed reporters charged with “undermining national security” News RSF’s 2020 Round-up: 50 journalists killed, two-thirds in countries “at peace” Hemn Mamand, a freelancer based in Erbil, was re-arrested on 5 April after giving an interview to the NRT TV channel in which he described the conditions in the prison from which he had just been released. His first arrest was for a Facebook post critical of the measures taken by the autonomous Kurdish government to tackle the coronavirus crisis. December 16, 2020 Find out morelast_img read more

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Audio update – Mac Lochlainn blames LUH waiting lists on chronic under-resourcing

first_img WhatsApp Audio update – Mac Lochlainn blames LUH waiting lists on chronic under-resourcing Donegal Deputy Padraig Mac Lochlainn says a long term pattern of under-resourcing at Letterkenny University Hospital has led to the situation where elective surgery is being scaled back to prevent a build up of trolleys in the Emergency Department.He says the fact that the situation has apparently been accepted by the higher echelons of management within the hospital makes it more difficult, and that’s why he was happy to be able to raise the issue with Minister Leo Varadkar in the Dail last evening.Deputy Mac Lochlainn has again claimed the reduction in elective surgery  is intended to free up beds in the hospital to avoid the embarrassing spectacle of patients on trolleys ahead of an election.He says patients on waiting lists have been sacrificed, and that’s a result of chronic under-resourcing…Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/podluh.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. Facebook RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Twitter Previous articleGardai warn of telephone scam targeting NW businessesNext articleMartin Regan steps aside at Naomh Conaill after Championship winning year admin WhatsApp 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic Google+ Pinterest Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan firecenter_img Facebook Pinterest Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th Google+ Twitter By admin – December 16, 2015 Homepage BannerNews 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry last_img read more

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‘All Reservations May Go And Only EWS May Remain; But That’s A Matter Of Policy’ : Supreme Court In Maratha Quota Case [Day 9]

first_imgTop Stories’All Reservations May Go And Only EWS May Remain; But That’s A Matter Of Policy’ : Supreme Court In Maratha Quota Case [Day 9] Radhika Roy25 March 2021 9:21 AMShare This – xOn the 9th day of the proceedings pertaining to the challenge to the Maharashtra SEBC Act, 2018, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court observed that it was for the Government to take a decision on whether caste and reservations should go.A 5-Judge Constitution Bench of Justices Ashok Bhushan, L. Nageswara Rao, S. Abdul Nazeer, Hemant Gupta and S. Ravindra Bhat remarked that…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginOn the 9th day of the proceedings pertaining to the challenge to the Maharashtra SEBC Act, 2018, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court observed that it was for the Government to take a decision on whether caste and reservations should go.A 5-Judge Constitution Bench of Justices Ashok Bhushan, L. Nageswara Rao, S. Abdul Nazeer, Hemant Gupta and S. Ravindra Bhat remarked that these were policy matters and were in the domain of the Parliament as well as the Legislature. It was further noted that this could be the beginning of all reservations going, with only quota for Economically Weaker Sections remaining. “This may be a beginning, all reservations may go and only EWS may remain, but these are all policies”, Justice Ashok Bhushan, the presiding judge of the bench, orally remarked. 1. Advocate Shriram P. Pingle Appearing for SCBC Welfare Association in an Intervention Application, Pingle submitted that “caste” as an elephant in the room had to be addressed, and that it was being being politicised with the Indra Sawhney judgement being utilised as a ground for extending reservations. “Endeavour should be made to remove caste-based reservations in a phased-manner”, stated Pingle, to which the Court responded that while the ideas were “radical and good”, it was for the Government to take a decision on dismantling caste and reservations. “That is for the Parliament and Legislature. When the Constitution was enacted, the object was a caste-less and egalitarian society. This may be a beginning, all reservations may go and only EWS may remain, but these are all policies”, noted Justice Bhushan. Pingle then submitted to the Court that 30 years had passed after Indra Sawhney and that if a mistake was made, then generations of people would suffer. “Since this case has a larger magnitude on the social life of the country, it may be appropriate to consider all the cases which are pending and then take a holistic view. Over-reservation is anti-reservation”, averred Pingle. 2. Senior Advocate Shyam Divan Divan submitted that there was no need to reconsider Indra Sawhney and that the 50% limit should be retained. “We are more equal now than we were 70 years ago. The focus needs to be on other forms of affirmative action. If the 50% limit is breached there will be political pressure not to reduce reservations. Once it’s breached, it will become impossible to backslide.” Divan further raised the point that Constitutions and constitutionalism were about balancing, and that the essence of the 50% limit was that it balanced the aspirations of different elements of society and the interests of those who were not gaining from reservations. He concluded that the SEBC Act had to be struck down for having breached the 50% limit and for having no real justification for doing so, and that the Gaikwad Committee material was not adequate. 3. Senior Advocate Pradeep Sancheti Sancheti commenced his submissions by informing the Court that there was not only political domination, but dominance in other fields as well. “See the statistics. Marathas comprise 40% posts in the open/general category. That itself is enough to show that there is adequate representation. They have awarded marks out of 25 and based on marking system, they claim that Marathas are backward. If you follow this marking system, then everybody would be backward, even the so-called open category.” In response to the Court’s observation that submissions had been made on the poor living conditions of Marathas, Sancheti submitted that the Commission had gone to the most backward areas of the State to discern the same. “The survey must cover the entire population and it must cover all castes and groups. We are talking about relative backwardness within the State. Backwardness is a relative concept, not an absolute concept”, concluded Sancheti. 4. Senior Advocate Gopal Sankaranarayanan Sankaranarayanan began his arguments by stating that the contours of federalism as a feature of the basic structure had to be drawn and then one had to see if the challenge fell within those contours. “There are six cases which involved a basic structure challenge which the Court allowed – Kesavananda Bharati, Indira Gandhi, P. Sambamurthy, Chandrakumar, Minerva Mills and the NJAC judgement. In all these cases, the principles on which the Constitutional amendment was struck down were exclusion of judicial review, free and fair elections, independence of judiciary”. Sankaranarayanan submitted that if the Court had to look into a Constitutional challenge today, it had to discern whether the insertion of Articles 338B, 342A, 366(26C) upset the gentle balance between the State and the Centre. In response to the Court’s question on why there was a sudden need to unify the Centre and the State Lists in 2017, Sankaranayan stated, “The only guess I can hazard is what Dr. Dhawan said that repeatedly we have had caste groups blocking roads, causing violence and State Governments being put to sword. This kind of terrorism and civil strife is perhaps why the Parliament feels it is best to centralise”. It was also averred that a challenge to a Constitutional amendment had to be so extreme and unconscionable that it would shake basic structure, and that the 102nd amendment did not do that. “After 342A, there is one list. Usage of ‘Central’ is to re-emphasise, clarify and get around Indra Sawhney. There is no need to disturb it or the 50% limit. High Courts have consistently applied this rule. Only the government has breached it to extend an olive branch in order to placate various groups.” 5. Senior Advocate Arvind Datar Datar commenced his submission by contending that the Respondents could not call for reconsideration of Indra Sawhney on the ground of not having considered Directive Principles of State Policy, unless they showed which Directive Principles had not been considered. “The arguments have not addressed the validity of the SEBC Act which has to be tested on the Indra Sawhney judgment and the law on the date of the particular Act. There has been no argument to show how the SEBC Act is valid and how the High Court judgement is consistent with Indra Sawhney”. He further submitted that 50% was an inviolable rule, and the submission that the limit should be breached due to changing social dynamics was untenable on facts. “50% limit on reservations has been given a certain amount of legal stability and certainty. I shudder to think what will happen if this is removed. It is like a dam without which there will be a flood of populist theories in election. Ultimately there are limits to power. Whatever the legislature wants to do in terms of affirmative action, it can do but the 50% line should not be crossed”, concluded Datar. Matter will continue tomorrow. Attorney-General KK Venugopal and Solicitor-General Tushar Mehta will be providing their Reply to the submissions.Advocates VK Biju, Hrishikesh Chitaley, Kaleeswaram Raj, Pradeep Mishra, Prashant Kenjale, Akash Kakade Ashok Arora, Amol Karande and Diksha Rai also made their submissions today. BACKGROUND The pleas before the Constitution Bench challenges the Bombay High Court judgment passed in June 2019, and submits that the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC) Act, 2018, which provides for 12% and 13% quota to the Maratha community in education and jobs respectively, violated the principles laid in the case of Indira Sawhney v. Union of India (1992) as per which the Apex Court capped the reservation limit at 50%. The Bombay High Court, while upholding the Maratha quota, held that 16% reservation is not justifiable and ruled that reservation should not exceed 12% in employment and 13% in education as recommended by the State Backward Commission. On September 9, 2020, a three-judge Bench of the Supreme Court referred the cases to a larger Bench to determine the issue whether State Government has the power to declare a class as Socially and Economically Backward after the Constitution (102nd) amendment. Reports of previous hearingsMaratha Quota Case : Indira Sawhney Decision Delivered After Much Discussion; No Need To Revisit, Datar Argues In Supreme Court’No Extraordinary Circumstance To Exceed 50% Limit’ : SC Constitution Bench Hears Lawyers Opposing Maratha Quota On Day 3Maratha Quota Case, Day 4 : Rights Of States On Backward Classes Not Affected By 102nd Constitution Amendment, AG Tells Supreme Court For How Many Generations Reservations Will Continue? Supreme Court Asks In Maratha Quota Case[Day 5]’Affirmative Action Not Limited To Reservation Only’: Supreme Court In Maratha Quota Case Hearing[Day 6]Maharashtra Law Granting Maratha Quota Constitutional, Centre Tells Supreme Court [Day 7] ‘We Cannot Take This 16% Reservation Lightly’, Says Supreme Court On Maratha Quota[Hearing Day 8]Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Storylast_img read more

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